Key Factors on the Acquirer’s Side

There are several key factors on the acquirer’s side of a sale, most of which are necessary to achieve a successful closing. Just as a seller has to deal with quite a few factors, the acquirer must also. Some of the more important ones on the acquisition side are: Sufficient financial resources to complete the deal as specified. Depth of capable staff to run the existing business and also execute an acquisition at the same time. A rational approach to the type, size and geographic location of target companies. The willingness to “pay-up” for acquisitions such as 6x EBITDA and, if necessary, the willingness to pay 100% cash, whether the sale is one of assets or a stock transaction. Assuming the acquisition search generates satisfactory deal flow, a willingness to stay the course for 6 to 12 months in the search process. A confirmation by the board of directors of their commitment to complete a deal. A “point person” in the search process, preferably the CEO, CFO or … [Read more...]

Company Weaknesses

Take two seemingly identical companies with very similar financials, but one of the companies was worth substantially more than the other company.  One company will sell for $10 million “as is” or some changes can be made and the same company can be sold for $15 million. Following is a partial list of potential company weaknesses to consider in order to assess a company’s vulnerability. Customer Concentration:  First, one has to analyze the situation.  The U.S. Government might be considered one customer but from ten different purchasing agents.  Or, GM might have one purchasing agent but be directed to ten different plants.  One office product manufacturer with $20 million in sales had 75% of its business with one customer…Staples.  They had three choices: 1. Cross their fingers and remain the same; 2. Acquire another company with a different customer base; or 3. Sell out to another company.  They selected the third choice and took their chips off the table.  The acquirer was a … [Read more...]

What Would Your Business Sell For?

There is the old anecdote about the immigrant who opened his own business in the United States. Like many small business owners, he had his own bookkeeping system. He kept his accounts payable in a cigar box on the left side of his cash register, his daily receipts – cash and credit card receipts – in the cash register, and his invoices and paid bills in a cigar box on the right side of his cash register. When his youngest son graduated as a CPA, he was appalled by his father's primitive bookkeeping system. “I don't know how you can run a business that way,” his son said. “How do you know what your profits are?” “Well, son,” the father replied, “when I came to this country, I had nothing but the clothes I was wearing. Today, your brother is a doctor, your sister is a lawyer, and you are an accountant. Your mother and I have a nice car, a city house and a place at the beach. We have a good business and everything is paid for. Add that all together, subtract the clothes, and there's your … [Read more...]

What Would Your Business Sell For?

There is the old anecdote about the immigrant who opened his own business in the United States. Like many small business owners, he had his own bookkeeping system. He kept his accounts payable in a cigar box on the left side of his cash register, his daily receipts – cash and credit card receipts – in the cash register, and his invoices and paid bills in a cigar box on the right side of his cash register. When his youngest son graduated as a CPA, he was appalled by his father's primitive bookkeeping system. “I don't know how you can run a business that way,” his son said. “How do you know what your profits are?” “Well, son,” the father replied, “when I came to this country, I had nothing but the clothes I was wearing. Today, your brother is a doctor, your sister is a lawyer, and you are an accountant. Your mother and I have a nice car, a city house and a place at the beach. We have a good business and everything is paid for. Add that all together, subtract the clothes, and there's your … [Read more...]

Checklist for Valuation

1. Start with the business – Value Drivers: Size, growth rate, management, niche, history – Value Detractors: Customer concentration Poor financials Outdated M&E Few assets Lack of agreements with employees, customers, suppliers Poor exit possibilities Small market Potential technology changes Product or service very price sensitive 2. Financial analysis: Market Value – comparables Multiple of Earnings – based on rate of return desired 3. Structure and terms: 100% cash at closing could reduce price 20% 4. Second opinion: Even professionals need a sounding board 5. Indications of high value: – High sustainable cash flow – Expected industry growth – Good market share – Competitive advantage – location/exclusive product line – Undervalued assets – land/equipment – Healthy working capital – Low failure rate in industry – Modern well-kept plant 6. Indications of low value: – Poor outlook for industry – foreign competition price cutting regulations taxes material costs – Distressed … [Read more...]

Checklist for Valuation

1. Start with the business – Value Drivers: Size, growth rate, management, niche, history – Value Detractors: Customer concentration Poor financials Outdated M&E Few assets Lack of agreements with employees, customers, suppliers Poor exit possibilities Small market Potential technology changes Product or service very price sensitive 2. Financial analysis: Market Value – comparables Multiple of Earnings – based on rate of return desired 3. Structure and terms: 100% cash at closing could reduce price 20% 4. Second opinion: Even professionals need a sounding board 5. Indications of high value: – High sustainable cash flow – Expected industry growth – Good market share – Competitive advantage – location/exclusive product line – Undervalued assets – land/equipment – Healthy working capital – Low failure rate in industry – Modern well-kept plant 6. Indications of low value: – Poor outlook for industry – foreign competition price cutting regulations taxes material costs – Distressed … [Read more...]

Simplifying the Valuation

“There are many reasons for valuing an entity, and those circumstances can lead to different outcomes…For instance, a business's value for sale on a going-concern basis will differ from its value for liquidation purposes. It similarly makes a difference if the valuation is for an orderly liquidation as opposed to a forced one. For example, the value of a company for estate-tax purposes (fair market value) likely will differ from its value for a sale to a specific purchaser (investment or strategic value). In some instances involving litigation, the courts or the law may dictate which standard of value to use.” Source: Journal of Accountancy , August 2003 Introduction The two variables – EBIT and DCF numbers – are affected by not only the financial aspects of the business but also the non-financial aspects, which can be both objective and subjective. For purposes of buying or selling a company, it is important for the seller to determine the floor price (the lowest acceptable … [Read more...]

Simplifying the Valuation

“There are many reasons for valuing an entity, and those circumstances can lead to different outcomes…For instance, a business's value for sale on a going-concern basis will differ from its value for liquidation purposes. It similarly makes a difference if the valuation is for an orderly liquidation as opposed to a forced one. For example, the value of a company for estate-tax purposes (fair market value) likely will differ from its value for a sale to a specific purchaser (investment or strategic value). In some instances involving litigation, the courts or the law may dictate which standard of value to use.” Source: Journal of Accountancy , August 2003 Introduction The two variables – EBIT and DCF numbers – are affected by not only the financial aspects of the business but also the non-financial aspects, which can be both objective and subjective. For purposes of buying or selling a company, it is important for the seller to determine the floor price (the lowest acceptable … [Read more...]

What Is a Business Worth?

Many courts and the Internal Revenue Service have defined fair market value as: “The amount at which property would exchange between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having a reasonable knowledge of relevant facts.” You may have to read this several times to get the gist and depth of this definition. The problem with this definition is that the conditions cited rarely exist in the real world of selling or buying a business. For example, the definition states that the sale of the business cannot be conducted under any duress, and neither the buyer nor the seller can be pushed into the transaction. Such factors as emotion and sentimental value cannot be a part of the sale. Surprisingly, under this definition, no actual sale or purchase has to take place to establish fair market value. That's probably because one could never take place using the definition. So what does make up the value of a privately-held business? A … [Read more...]

What Is a Business Worth?

Many courts and the Internal Revenue Service have defined fair market value as: “The amount at which property would exchange between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having a reasonable knowledge of relevant facts.” You may have to read this several times to get the gist and depth of this definition. The problem with this definition is that the conditions cited rarely exist in the real world of selling or buying a business. For example, the definition states that the sale of the business cannot be conducted under any duress, and neither the buyer nor the seller can be pushed into the transaction. Such factors as emotion and sentimental value cannot be a part of the sale. Surprisingly, under this definition, no actual sale or purchase has to take place to establish fair market value. That's probably because one could never take place using the definition. So what does make up the value of a privately-held business? A … [Read more...]

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